Fiche biblio n° 1. Le biais inter-ethnique dans la reconnaissance des visages

27 juillet 2012 par Frank Arnould

Nous reconnaissons mieux les personnes de notre groupe ethnique que celles de groupes ethniques différents. Depuis environ une quarantaine d’années, ce biais de mémoire fait l’objet d’un nombre important de travaux. (Mise à jour le 14 novembre 2013).

PNG - 101.7 ko

En 1879, le savant britannique Francis Galton (1822-1911) écrivait : « Un voyageur qui se trouve pour la première fois parmi des personnes d’une race très différente de la sienne pense qu’elles se ressemblent beaucoup, et un Hindou éprouve des difficultés à distinguer un Anglais d’un autre. » (p.135, notre traduction).

Quelques années plus tard, en 1914, le psychologue Gustave Feingold, de l’Université d’Harvard, ajoutait : « Il est aujourd’hui bien établi que, toutes choses étant égales par ailleurs, les individus d’une race donnée peuvent être distingués les uns des autres proportionnellement à notre familiarité, à nos contacts avec la race dans son ensemble. Ainsi, pour un Américain non initié, tous les Asiatiques se ressemblent, tandis que pour un Asiatique, tous les hommes blancs se ressemblent. J’admets que l’identification d’un étranger dans le même environnement dans lequel, pas lui, mais un membre de sa race a été vu précédemment, peut se terminer par une fausse reconnaissance. Mais ceci est possible en toutes circonstances, puisque c’est la conséquence d’une perception incomplète des qualités distinctives » (p. 50, notre traduction).

Ces deux auteurs furent donc parmi les premiers à faire le constat suivant : nous reconnaissons mieux les personnes qui appartiennent à notre groupe ethnique que celles qui nous sont « racialement » différentes. Ce n’est pourtant qu’à partir de la fin des années 1960 que la recherche expérimentale sur ce phénomène va démarrer. Dans la littérature contemporaine, un tel biais de reconnaissance des visages est appelé effet de l’autre race (other-race effect, en anglais), effet inter-race (cross-race effect), biais lié à sa race d’appartenance ou effet d’appartenance ethnique (own-race bias).

Comme le démontre la bibliographie ci-dessous, les travaux publiés sont aujourd’hui très nombreux. Pour quelles raisons les chercheurs, un peu partout dans le monde, s’intéressent-ils au biais de reconnaissance trans-ethnique des visages ? Deux raisons, au moins, peuvent être évoquées. D’une part, son étude permet de mieux comprendre, plus généralement, les processus en jeu dans la reconnaissance des visages.

D’autre part, les difficultés de reconnaissance inter-ethnique des visages s’invitent parfois dans la vie courante. Dans certains cas, leurs conséquences peuvent être dramatiques. Dans le domaine judiciaire, par exemple, ce phénomène suggère que les erreurs d’identification d’un suspect seraient plus fréquentes quand suspect et témoin ou victime ne sont pas de la même origine ethnique. Aux États-Unis, ce risque a été confirmé par l’Innocence Project, une organisation qui a pour mission de disculper des condamnés innocents en pratiquant des tests ADN.

Références :

Feingold, G. A. (1914). The influence of environment on identification of persons and things. Journal of the American Institute of Criminal Law and Criminology, 5(1), 39-54.

Galton, F. R. S. (1879). Composite portraits. The Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 8, 132-144.

Crédit photo :

ben.gallagher

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Biliographie

Mise à jour du 14 novembre 2013
Les ajouts sont précédés du signe *

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